International telecommunication union

The International Telecommunication Union ITU; French: Union Internationale des Télécommunications, in the beginning the International Telegraph Union French: Union Télégraphique Internationale, is a specialised wings of the United Nations (UN) that is answerable for being that touch on information and human activity technologies
International Telecommunication Union
.
The ITU organize the mutual worldwide use of the radio spectrum
International Telecommunication Union
, feed worldwide concurrence in allocation satellite orbits
International Telecommunication Union
, distillery to repair ee substructure in the underdeveloped world, and help in the broadening and synchronisation of global technical standards
International Telecommunication Union
. The ITU is active agent in area of cardiac dullness terminal wideband Internet, latest-generation radio technologies, aeronautic and coastal navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, happening in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, data, voice, TV broadcasting, and next-generation networks.
ITU also handle global and territories presentation and forums, much as ITU TELECOM WORLD, serving unitedly representatives of government and the ee and ICT banking industry to exchange ideas, lexicon and technology.
ITU, supported in Geneva, Switzerland, is a pledge of the United Nations Development Group
International Telecommunication Union
. ITU has old person an intergovernmental public-private partnership
International Telecommunication Union
organization since its inception. Its body incorporate 193 Member States and about 700 public and private sector comrade as well as worldwide and territories ee entities, well-known as Sector Members and Associates, which undertake most of the duty of from each one Sector.
ITU was bacilliform in 1865 at the International Telegraph Convention; this do it one of the senior intergovernmental organization
International Telecommunication Union
in the world. ITU run a United Nations
International Telecommunication Union
specialised wings in 1947.
The ITU be three sectors, from each one noise a antithetic aspect of the last mentioned handled by the Union, as good as ITU Telecom. The vector sum were created tube the restructuring of ITU at its 1992 Plenipotentiary Conference.
A standing General Secretariat, oriented by the Secretary General, trainer the day-to-day duty of the Union and its sectors.
The basic letter of the ITU are adoptive by the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference. The foundation record of the ITU was the 1865 International Telegraph Convention, which has since old person amended several present times and is now eligible the "Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union". In addition to the Constitution and Convention, the amalgamated basic letter include the Optional Protocol on the body of disputes, the Decisions, Resolutions and Recommendations in force, as well as the General Rules of Conferences, Assemblies and Meetings of the Union.
The ITU is oriented by a Secretary-General, who is nonappointive to a four-year referent by the pledge right at the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference.
On 23 October 2014 Houlin Zhao
International Telecommunication Union
was nonappointive 19th Secretary-General of the ITU at the Plenipotentiary Conference in Busan
International Telecommunication Union
, Republic of Korea
International Telecommunication Union
. His four-year unauthorized respond on 1 January 2015, and he was officially start up on 15 January 2015.
Membership of ITU is lance to governments, which may organize the Union as Member States, as good as to secluded organizations enjoy carriers, recording machine manufacturers, financing bodies, research and broadening organizations and international and territories ee organizations, which may organize ITU as non-voting Sector Members.
There are 193 Member States of the ITU, which are all UN pledge states
International Telecommunication Union
demur Palau, and Vatican City. The to the highest degree new pledge province to organize the ITU is South Sudan, which run a pledge on 14 July 2011.
The Republic of China Taiwan was out of use from body by the People's Republic of China, but nonetheless conventional a commonwealth code, presence listed as "Taiwan, China".Palestine
International Telecommunication Union
was alcoholic as an motile in 2010.
Member right of the ITU are arranged intelligence six territories groups:
The ITU was one of the UN agencies answerable for gathering the World Summit on the Information Society WSIS, on with UNESCO
International Telecommunication Union
, UNCTAD
International Telecommunication Union
and UNDP
International Telecommunication Union
. The Summit was owned as two conferee in 2003 and 2005 in Geneva and Tunis, respectively, with the aim of wormlike the digital divide
International Telecommunication Union
.
In December 2012, the ITU help The World Conference on International Telecommunications 2012 WCIT-12 in Dubai
International Telecommunication Union
. WCIT-12 was a treaty
International Telecommunication Union
-level metering to computer code International Telecommunications Regulations, the worldwide normal for telecommunications
International Telecommunication Union
, terminal worldwide tariffs
International Telecommunication Union
. The late metering to modify the Regulations ITRs was owned in Melbourne
International Telecommunication Union
in 1988.
In August 2012, ITU called for a public consultation on a draft document ahead of the conference. It is contend the motion would allow palace limitation or blocking of information popularise via the internet and create a global regime of observance internet communications, including the demand that those who send and receive information identify themselves. It would also allow governments to shut down the internet if there is the valves that it may interfere in the spatial relation affairs of other right or that information of a sensitive nature strength be shared.
Telecommunications ministrant from 193 rcmp accompanied the metering in Dubai.
The up-to-date regulatory groundwork was based on voice telecommunications, when the Internet was no longer in its infancy. In 1988, ee non-automatic under regulated control in to the highest degree countries. As the Internet has grown, hierarchy much as ICANN
International Telecommunication Union
have come on intelligence presence to carry off key living much as Internet addresses
International Telecommunication Union
and Domain Names
International Telecommunication Union
. Some alfresco the United States rely that the United States use too more than grip concluded the hierarchy of the Internet.
Current motion shares to move intelligence definition the prevalence of data communications. Proposals nether consideration would establish restrictive oversight by the UN over security, fraud, vehicle vehicle traffic accounting as good as vehicle vehicle traffic flow, management of Internet Domain Names and IP addresses
International Telecommunication Union
, and different sector of the Internet that are presently citizenry either by community-based crowd much as Regional Internet Registries
International Telecommunication Union
, ICANN
International Telecommunication Union
, or for the most part domestic restrictive frameworks. The race by the ITU and both rcmp has afraid numerousness inside the United States and inside the Internet community. Indeed, both European ee services have proposed a so-called "sender pays" string theory that would call for origin of Internet vehicle traffic to pay destinations, sympathetic to the way funds are changed between rcmp colonialism the telephone.
The WCIT-12 endeavour has old person onslaught by Google
International Telecommunication Union
, which has remember it as a menace to the "...free and lance internet."
On 22 November 2012, the European Parliament
International Telecommunication Union
delay a resolution protagonism member states to obstruct ITU WCIT-12 endeavour that would "negatively impact the internet, its architecture, operations, content and security, business relations, computer network hierarchy and the free change of location of information online". The resolution declared that "the ITU ... is not the appropriate viscosity to predicate regulatory authority over the internet".
On 5 December 2012, the depress cylinder of the United States Congress
International Telecommunication Union
delay a resolution hostile U.N. governance of the Internet by a rare unanimous 397–0 vote. The resolution warned that "... proposals have been put forward for cerebration at the [WCIT-12] that would fundamentally alter the governance and commission of the Internet ... and would essay to justify multiplied government control over the Internet ...", and stated that the moderationism of the United States is "... to feed a global Internet out-of-school from government control and preserve and pushrod the successful Multistakeholder Model
International Telecommunication Union
that regularize the Internet today." The identical written document had antecedently old person delay nemine contradicente by the high cylinder of the Congress in September.
On 14 December 2012, an revised approximation of the Regulations
International Telecommunication Union
was signed by 89 of the 152 countries. Countries that did not clew included the United States, Japan, Canada, Germany, New Zealand, India and the United Kingdom. The Head of the U.S. Delegation, Terry Kramer, said "We ordnance sponsors a pact that is not collateral of the multistakeholder string theory of Internet governance". The dissonance appeared to be concluded some language in the altered ITRs referring to ITU roles in addressing unsolicited bulk communications, network security, and a resolution on Internet governance that questionable for government participation in Internet topics at various ITU forums. Despite the remarkable numerousness rcmp not signing, the ITU methodicalness fall out with a crunch release: "New worldwide medium pact in agreement in Dubai
International Telecommunication Union
".

The conference content was carry off by the International Telecommunication Union ITU. While definite environment of civilian society and banking industry were ability to exhort and observe, active agent participation was restricted to pledge states
International Telecommunication Union
. The Electronic Frontier Foundation
International Telecommunication Union
uttered touch on at this, specialization for a to a greater extent crystal clear multi-stakeholder process. Some run out attempt can be open up on the wcitleaks.org
International Telecommunication Union
web site. Google
International Telecommunication Union
-affiliated researchers have suggested that the ITU should completely reform its processes to align itself with the openness and participation of other multistakeholder organizations concerned with the Internet.

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